What is a lead-acid battery?

 News     |      2018-11-26 19:26
What is a lead-acid battery?
 
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors.


 
The battery is mainly composed of tubular positive plate, negative plate, electrolyte, separator, battery tank, battery cover, pole column, liquid injection cover and so on.Exhaust battery electrode is composed of lead and lead oxide, electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid.With the upgrade of battery manufacturing technology, lead-acid battery has developed into maintenance-free lead-acid battery and colloid maintenance-free battery. Electrolyte or distilled water is not needed in the use of lead-acid battery.It is to use positive pole to produce oxygen to be able to achieve oxygen cycle in negative pole absorption basically, can prevent moisture to decrease.Lead-acid water battery is mostly used in tractor, tricycle, automobile starting, etc., while maintenance-free lead-acid battery is more widely used, including uninterrupted power supply, electric vehicle power, electric bicycle battery, etc.Lead-acid batteries can be divided into constant discharge (such as uninterruptible power supply) and instantaneous discharge (such as car starting battery) according to application needs.
 
化学性质
充电:2PbSO₄+2H₂O=PbO₂+Pb+2H₂SO₄(电解池)
放电:PbO₂+Pb+2H₂SO₄=2PbSO₄+2H₂O(原电池)
阳极:PbSO₄ + 2H₂O- 2e ‐ === PbO₂ + 4H﹢ + SO₄²‐
阴极:PbSO₄ + 2e ‐=== Pb + SO₄²‐
负极:Pb + SO₄²‐- 2e=== PbSO₄
正极:PbO₂ + 4H ﹢ +SO4²‐ + 2e ‐=== PbSO₄ + 2H₂O
当放电进行时,硫酸溶液的浓度将不断降低,当溶液的密度降到1.18g/ml 时应停止使用进行充电